Real Conformance for ODF?

There has been quite a lot of hubbub recently about ODF conformance, in particular about how conformance to the forthcoming ODF 1.2 specification should be defined.

A New Conformance Clause

Earlier versions of ODF (including ISO/IEC 26300) already defined conformance - it was simply a question of obeying the schema. So in ODF 1.1, for example, we had this text:

Conforming applications [...] shall read documents that are valid against the OpenDocument schema if all foreign elements and attributes are removed before validation takes place [...] (1.5)

and that was the simple essence of ODF conformance.

This is now up for reconsideration. The impetus for altering the existing conformance criteria appears to have come from a change in OASIS's procedures, which now require that specifications have “a set of numbered conformance clauses”, a requirement which seems sensible enough.

However, the freshly-drafted proposal which the OASIS TC has been considering goes further than just introducing numbered clauses: it now defines two categories of conformance:

  1. “Conforming OpenDocument Document” conformance
  2. “Conforming OpenDocument Extended Document” conformance

as shorthand, we might like to characterise these as the “pure” and “buggered-up” versions of ODF respectively.

The difference is that the “pure” version now forbids the use of foreign elements and attributes (i.e. those not declared by the ODF schema), while the “buggered-up” version permits them.


The proposal caused much debate. In support of the new conformance clause, IBM's Rob Weir described foreign elements (formerly so welcome in ODF) as proprietary extensions that are “evil” and as a “nuclear death ray gun”. Questioning the proposal, KOffice's Thomas Zander wrote that he was “worried that we are trying to remove a core feature that I depend on in both KOffice and Qt”. Meanwhile Microsoft's Doug Mahugh made a counter-proposal suggesting that ODF might adopt the Markup Compatibility and Extensibility mechanisms from ISO/IEC 29500 (OOXML).

Things came to a head in a 9-2-2 split vote last week which saw the new conformance text adopted in the new ODF committee specification by will of the majority. Following this there was some traffic in the blogosphere with IBM's Rob Weir commenting and Microsoft's Doug Mahugh counter-commenting on the vote and the circumstances surrounding it.

Shadow Play

What is to be made of all this? Maybe Sun, whose corporate memory still smarts from Microsoft's “extend and embrace” Java attempts, thinks this is a way to prevent a repeat of similar stunts for ODF. Or perhaps this is a way to carve out a niche for OpenOffice to enjoy “pure” status while competitor applications are relegated to the “buggered-up” bin. Maybe it is envisaged that governments might be encouraged to procure only systems that deal in “pure” ODF. Maybe foreign elements really are the harbinger of nuclear death.

Who knows?

Whatever the reasons behind the reasons, there is clearly an “absent presence" in all these discussions: Microsoft Office. And in particular the forthcoming Microsoft Office 2007 SP2 with its ODF support. It is never mentioned, except in an occasional nudge-nudge wink-wink sort of way.

This controvery is most bemusing. This is in part because the “Microsoft factor” appears not to be a factor anyway, since MS Office will (we are told) not use foreign elements for its ODF 1.1 support. But the main reason why this is bemusing is that this discussion (whether or not to permit foreign elements) is completely unreal. There seems to be an assumption that it matters – that conformance as defined in the ODF spec means something important when it comes to real users, real procurement, real development or real interoperability.

It doesn't mean anything real - and here's why...

Making an ODF-conformant Office Application

Let us consider the procurement rules of an imaginary country (Vulgaria, say). Let us further imagine that Vulgaria's government wants to standardize on using ODF for all its many departments. After many hours of meetings, and the expenditure of many Vulgarian Dollars on consultancy fees, the decision is finally made and an official draws up procurement rules to stipulate this:

Any office application software procured by the Government of Vulgaria must support ODF (ISO/IEC 26300), and must conform to the 'pure' conformance class defined in clause x.y of that Standard, reading and emitting only ODF documents that are so conformant".

Sorted, they think.

Now imagine a software company that has its eye on making a big sale of software licenses to Vulgaria. Unfortunately, its office application does not meet the ODF conformance criterion set out by the procurement officer. The marketing department is duly sad. But one day a bright young developer gets to hear of the problem and proposes a solution. He boldy proclaims “I can make our format ODF-conformant today!”, and proceeds to show how.

First he gets a template ODF document, like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

This document (he points out) meets the “pure” conformance criteria. Our young hacker then does a curious thing: he takes an existing (non-ODF) file from their office software, BASE-64 encodes it, and inserts the resulting text string into the element in the template document.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<text:p><!-- several MBs of BASE-64 encoded content here --></text:p>

There, he proudly proclaims. All we need to do it to wrap our current documents with the ODF wrapper when we save, and unwrap when we load – I can have a fresh build for you tomorrow.

The rest of the story is not so happy: the software company makes the sale and the government of Vulgaria finds after installation that none of the files from it will interoperate with any other ODF files from other sources, despite the software company having met its procurement rules to the letter.

Far fetched?

Okay, that story makes an extreme example – but it neverthess illustrates the point. It is possible for a smart developer to represent pretty much anything as a “pure” ODF document; any differences and incompatibilities can ever-so-easily be shoehorned into conformant ODF documents. That some software deals only in such pure ODF means precisely zero in the real world of interoperability.

The central consideration here is that ODF conformance only ever was (and is only projected to be) stated in terms of XML, and XML is (in)famously “all syntax and no semantics”. The semantics of an ODF document (broadly, all the narrative text in the specification) play no part in conformance can remain unimplemented in a conformant processor. An ODF developer can safely use just the schema and never read much else. All those descriptions of element behaviour can be ignored for the purposes of achieving ODF conformance. [N.B. mistakes in this para corrected following comment from Rob Weir, below]

So my question is: what is the current debate on ODF conformance really about? It looks to me like mis-directed effort.

What ODF might usefully do is to look at the “application description” feature introduced into OOXML. This describes several types of applications, including a type called “full”. Such applications have “a semantic understanding of every feature within [their] conformance class”, and

“Semantic understanding” is to be interpreted that an application shall treat the information in Office Open XML documents in a manner consistent with the semantic definitions given in this Specification.

In other words, it is possible to specify in OOXML procurement that the processor should heed the narrative description within that Standard (not just the XML grammar). ODF currently lacks this. In my view if there is to be any connection between a definition of ODF conformance and the experience of users in the real world, then something like OOXML's “application description” feature is urgently needed. And it might be better done now, than hastily inserted during a JTC 1 BRM ...

SC 34 Meetings, Okinawa - Days 3 & 4

Hotel Walkway at Sunset
Hotel Walkway at Sunset

Two days of hard grind. A lot of administrivia to sort (meeting dates, etc.); many paragraphs of the Directives to read; many defect reports on OOXML to address; and some vigorous discussion to be had about interoperability.

Some concrete progress was made, notably:

  • The first defect reports on ISO/IEC 29500 (aka OOXML) were addressed, and fixes agreed
  • Some principles were established how updates (as opposed to fixes) for OOXML might be processed
  • Some useful discussions in WG 5 clarified the scope of the ongoing work drafting a technical report giving guidance on how 29500 (OOXML) and 26300 (ODF) can interoperate

From my perspective, the most exciting discussion during these meetings centred on a presentation from the ODF editor, Patrick Durusau, on what he called “true” interoperability. Patrick (betraying his Topic Maps background) set out a suggestion that a PSI might be created to identify the document constructs described by the two document format Standards, and that each PSI might be in turn associated with metadata and documentation related to that construct. Essentially, this approach views the “problem” of interoperability between ODF and OOXML as a problem of documentation — though Patrick also pointed out that the interoperability problem had already been solved by corporations (maybe he meant Microsoft, for example) and that these corporations were, perhaps churlishly, keeping the information to themselves.

I see the establishment of such rich descriptive material as being a first important step on a road which leads to the dissolving of what we currently see as meaningful differences between the document formats. Perhaps in time the rest of the world will come to realise too that when we talk of a preference for ODF and OOXML we are, in the main, expressing a preference for syntax, and that the juvenile “OOXML vs ODF” arguments – however much they are loaded with corporate agendas masquerading as moral superiority – will achieve precisely nothing for those who matter: the end users.

SC 34 Meetings, Okinawa - Day 2

Sea Snake for Supper
A soup of sea snake, pig's trotter and seaweed

Another day of work in the hotel: which is a shame since the weather outside has been even warmer and very sunny. This morning was mostly given over to a meeting (via Skype™) with OASIS people to discuss how the future maintenance of ODF might be handled. This was a very constructive exchange, and while there are many details to work out over the coming weeks, my personal impressions was that all parties felt confident a good solution was in reach, and that the era of megaphone diplomacy on this topic was behind us all.

The afternoon was given over to drafting meeting notes, further readings of the JTC 1 Directives, and preparations for the WG meetings tomorrow. The coming-together of a number of people interested in both OOXML and ODF has led to some interesting lobby discussions over future directions for these standards. The groovy (but as yet unimplemented) new feature of RDF in ODF for metadata capture has certainly caught the imagination: might an NB propose that this feature is added to OOXML via an amendment? Conversely, the fact that a whole bunch of spreadsheet functions have been standardised in ISO/IEC 29500 (OOXML) potentially saves ODF a lot of work/pages. Certainly any new International Standard version of ODF would need a cast-iron reason to eschew borrowing any of these existing function definitions. Harmonious times may lie ahead …

In the evening Murata Makoto (who seems determined to test our Western sensibilities) took us for a meal of sea snake: a rare Okinawan delicacy. The charming old lady proprietor of the restaurant had been cooking our snake all day (we had had to place our orders yesterday). She explained that traditionally the sea snake was the food of kings, not because of rarity but because of the difficulty of preparation. Once the snake is caught it is smoked, turning it black. The snake is then boiled for one or two days (before domestic ovens this was a real chore) and at some point the many tiny bones in it have to be removed by hand.

And the taste? Well, it was certainly not like chicken. Quite chewy (so much muscle!), and a little like a gamier version of smoked mackerel. Yumsk.

SC 34 Meetings, Okinawa - Day 0

Okinawan Bloom
It is nice to get away from the freezing drizzle of the UK,
to the milder climes and bright sunshine of Okinawa.

I am in Okinawa for a week of ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC 34 meetings. To be precise, these are not meetings of SC 34 itself (there will be no plenary), rather the week will be taken up with two activities by parts of SC 34:

  • On Monday and Tuesday, a team picked by our Chairman will meet to discuss the maintenance procedures for ODF among themselves, and with OASIS representatives.
  • On Wednesday, Thursday and Friday SC 34’s two new working groups, WG 4 and WG 5, will meet.

These in turn will generate plenty of input for SC 34’s full Prague meeting in March.

ODF Maintenance

I have already written about the background to this activity, both the issues caused by the current lack of agreement on how maintenance should proceed, and JTC 1’s instruction to SC 34 from Nara that SC 34 and OASIS should develop a document specifying “detailed operation of joint maintenance procedures”.

At this stage the negotiations are completely informal, and expected simply to offer an opportunity for all parties to have an open discussion aimed at increasing the level of mutual understanding to a point where they are ready to start working together in earnest on drafting the agreement text. For SC 34, this text will need to be presented to members in time for consideration in Prague, at which meeting it will seek SC 34’s blessing to be passed up to JTC 1 for further consideration.

WG 4 & WG 5

Okinawa will see the first two meetings of our two new working groups, WG 4 (dedicated to maintenance of ISO/IEC 29500, aka OOXML), and WG 5 (dedicated to document file format interoperability). Both groups are expected to meet face-to-face more frequently than the rest of SC 34, and to make heavy use of the newfangled teleconferencing technology that JTC 1 has recently embraced.

WG4’s business in the short term will be largely taken up with correcting defects in the 29500 text (in JTC 1 parlance, producing corrigenda) in response to reported defects. A number of these have been submitted already, by Japan, the UK and Ecma themselves. The UK has a large number on additional ones brewing and is likely to submit a second batch in February.

WG 5’s short-term work is to concentrate on the Technical Report (a more informal document that an International Standard) being drafted which sets out some of the considerations when mapping between ISO/IEC 26300 (ODF 1.0) and ISO/IEC 29500 (OOXML). I’m wondering too whether there will be any moves in this WG to garner support for new work in this area. Now that the dust has settled over document formats themselves, even non XML experts are beginning to grok that by themselves these standards don’t actually give us that much, but are a useful foundation on which to work. “Interoperability” in particular requires so much more than simply having standardised document formats. I await developments in this space with interested anticipation …

ODF – OASIS and JTC 1 Get It Together

In Nara, Japan, at the just-finished JTC 1 plenary meeting, significant progress has been made on some of the issues surrounding ODF development which I highlighted recently. A resolution was passed, the pertinent part of which reads as follows:
“JTC 1 recognizes the timely response (JTC 1 N9398) from OASIS to the SC 34 liaison statement (SC34 N1095 […]), and thanks OASIS for the new draft errata to ODF 1.0. JTC 1 particularly welcomes OASIS's proposal to confer with JTC 1 and SC 34 to forge a genuine partnership for collaboratively handling the maintenance of ODF/IS 26300. JTC 1 requests SC 34 and OASIS to develop a document specifying the detailed operation of joint maintenance procedures, with a common goal of preparation of technically-equivalent documents, and taking into account the requirements and constraints of both standards bodies. SC 34 is requested to consider this document at its March 2009 plenary and report the results to JTC 1 following this meeting.”

(See the SC 34 chairman’s Business Plan, as presented in Nara, for
this and other interesting information.)

The prelude to this resolution is a sequence of exchanges between SC 34 and OASIS. Now, while highly selective leaking to unwitting and credulous sites may have succeeded in producing a fuss in the blogosphere (see, for example, groklaw's “The Microsoft-Stacked SC 34 Committee Makes a Move”) the truth is rather less sensational, and speaks more of parties of good will wanting to make progress, than of the crazed oppositional narrative of “MS vs the world” that the tinfoil brigade seems increasingly desperate to try to perpetuate. The liaison statement from SC 34 to OASIS out of Jeju was, of course, not leaked to/by groklaw because it did not fit with that crazed narrative. I don’t believe it is giving too much away to reveal its concluding words were: “SC 34 is open to suggestions as to how to reach a resolution of this issue that is mutually acceptable to OASIS and SC 34.”

man wearing infoil hat
The tinfoil hat wearers are desperate to construct a a narrative
around ODF in which MS plays the villain; facts are getting
in their way. (Photo credit: Rob Watkins. Licence.)

OASIS duly replied indicating in the course of their communication that they too were interested in such a mutually acceptable resolution, in particular for the maintenance issues (of errata and defects) that had arisen from the current unsatisfactory maintenance agreement.

And so it was that in Nara representatives of JTC 1, SC 34, OASIS and some of the commercial stakeholders in ODF worked hard and hammered out the text above, which was duly amended and blessed by the JTC 1 members (nations) – who are, ultimately, the decision makers in charge of international standardisation.

Reading the Runes

The first two sentences of the resolution set out the background. The third contains the meat:

“JTC1 requests SC34 and OASIS to develop a document specifying the detailed operation of joint maintenance procedures, with a common goal of preparation of technically-equivalent documents, and taking into account the requirements and constraints of both standards bodies.”

The three key phrases here are, I think, these:

  • joint maintenance procedures” – critically maintenance (in JTC 1 terms “maintenance” includes the following activities: revision, withdrawal, periodic review, correction of defects, amendment, and stabilization) will now be a joint activity, rather than one conducted exclusively in isolation.
  • technically-equivalent documents” – so, documents must be the same (apart from such non-technical things as cover pages). By keeping the OASIS and International Standard versions in step-lock with each other, marketplace confusion can be avoided by eliminating doubts about version differences
  • the requirements and constraints of both standards bodies” – OASIS and JTC 1 have different ways of doing things; some way will need to be found so that all concerns are properly met.

Now, I have no idea what the final maintenance agreement is going to look like. SC 34 people and OASIS are going to keep working hard over the next few months and it is anticipated these negotiations will culminate in a face-to-face summit to be held in Okinawa at the end of January 2009, to coincide with the meetings of WG 4 (dedicated to OOXML) and WG 5 (dedicated to document format interop, particularly ODF/OOXML). Any agreed text will ultimately need to be blessed by the two top-levels of the organisations … this is, after all, an agreement between JTC 1 and OASIS, and not between SC 34 and OASIS, or SC 34 and the ODF TC. Okinawa certainly looks like it is going to be the site of a vibrant meeting, with OOXML and ODF folks attending in numbers…

My personal hunch about the shape of the final maintenance arrangement is that it will be less like the one SC 34 arranged with Ecma, in which the Ecma TC was absorbed into a new Working Group, and something more akin to a parallel-running process, with mechanisms for exchanging information and synchronising key activities. But that is just my personal hunch.

Spreading the Love

Via Doug Mahugh, from Redmond, comes the happy announcement (even IBM’s Bob Sutor called it “excellent news”) that Microsoft will be participating in OASIS’s ODF Interoperability and Conformance TC (see Rob Weir’s post for background on this activity). This is really good to hear. With the release of Office 2007 SP2 Microsoft are suddenly going to find themselves stewards of by far the biggest installed user-base of ODF office applications, so it is vital for users they are part of the conversation developers and vendors need to be having about making their implementations interoperate.

From the uncertainty that marked the beginning of the year, these latest pieces of news are very positive indications of progress in the document format space. So much has been accomplished in 2008, and I have every confidence 2009 is going to see this positive progress continue …